The paper considers the basics of creating a technology for designing neuro-digital ecosystems for the implementation of the concept of Society and Industry 5.0. This scientific article opens a series of works devoted to relevant and promising problems of creating breakthrough methodological and technological approaches and tools for the fifth industrial revolution Industry 5.0. The cognitive model of industry transformation Industry 5.0 is presented. The evolution of scientific and applied research carried out by the team of authors since 1997 in the direction of artificial intelligence and digital economy is considered. The authors present the structure of neuro-digital ecosystems for the implementation of the concept of Industry 5.0, as well as a conceptual model of a digital ecosystem of production and economic systems of various types and purposes created within the framework of the concept of Industry 5.0. An instrumental environment for system-target modeling of applied problems is considered, which is part of a synergistic research environment of digital technology-decision support platform of the information and analytical center of the governor of the Kaliningrad region. A set of methods for transforming mathematical knowledge is considered, which makes it possible to create hybrid computing schemes for intelligent modeling of complex production and economic systems in industry. The use of the proposed set of methods makes it possible to organically integrate artificial intelligence methods into the fundamental analytical dependencies of two-level hybrid computing schemes, and thus create fundamentally new, highly adaptive control systems of various classes and purposes for a wide range of production and economic systems. The architecture of the software and hardware complex for instrumental design of neuro-digital ecosystems “SITAP -AI” is presented. Test approbation of the technology for designing neuro-digital ecosystems based on the “SITAP-AI” instrumental environment was carried out within the framework of the program to create an information and analytical center for the Governor of the Kaliningrad Region as part of the Federal Target Program “Electronic Russia”. With the aim of industrial testing of the technology for designing neuro-digital ecosystems, the team of authors, together with specialists from the Kia Motors Corporation, began joint work on the creation of an innovation center, as well as a technology for the synthesis of innovative developments, products and science-intensive services. The technology implies the possibility of integrating various methods and applied tools with the subsequent generation of specialized technological chains of a new generation. This allows the accumulation of advanced achievements in the field of science, basic and critical industrial technologies, providing the generation of new knowledge in inter-, multi- and transdisciplinary fields for solving complex engineering and design, and production and economic problems.