The main trends in the development of the innovation system of the Russian Federation are considered in the article, as well as the necessity of transition of the economy to an innovative development model, which will contribute to achieving the long-term goals of the state development through implementing the functions of innovations in the economy. The authors prove that these functions have a useful impact at different levels of management: from the world economy to a specific enterprise. Thus, in modern conditions, the problem of identifying and overcoming obstacles in the development of innovative activities of Russian enterprises is becoming more urgent. The article is dedicated to the actual problem of identifying and overcoming obstacles within the framework of innovative activity of Russian enterprises. High economic risk and uncertainty regarding economic benefits from the use of intellectual property are playing the main role in the list of such obstacles. These factors have become increasingly important in recent years, which, in the face of increasing competition, is associated with increasing uncertainty in the competitiveness of innovative products. The authors proved that the solution of the difficult task of forecasting the competitiveness of innovations makes it important to develop a proper method whose correctness largely depends on the ability to take into account the specifics of innovations to the maximum extent. The study identifies specific features and shows that the degree of their impact depends on the novelty and potential of innovation. The specific features revealed allow to formulate the requirements that the method of forecasting the competitiveness of an innovative product should meet. On that basis the authors developed principles for a methodical approach to the solution tasks, such as functional efficiency, continuous development, timeliness, progressiveness, intellectual property protection, variability, completeness of cost accounting.