The paper raises important issues that are the current implementation of the state programs of the Russian Federation aimed at balanced regional and industrial development and the need for impact assessments of these programs: state program of the Russian Federation «Development of industry and increasing its competitiveness», approved by decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of April 15, 2014, no. 328; state program of the Kostroma region «Economic development of the Kostroma Oblast for the period until 2025», and one of the five directions of the state programs of the Russian Federation, «balanced regional development». The goal of the study is elaborating the scientific and methodical approach for assessing the structural balance of the industry as an economic system. The objectives of the study are substantiating why it is necessary to develop scientific and methodological means for assessing the structural balance of economic systems; developing the criteria for structural balancing of the economic system and the principles for its assessment; determining the structural balance of an economic system (including industry), as well as certain types of structural balancing of economic system; developing the stages of algorithm and metrics to assess the structural balance of economic systems; assessing the structural balance of the industry in the Kostroma Oblast. The research methodology is a systematic approach. The results of the study can find application in industrial policy, structural policy, regional policy, assessment of the performance of government programs for balanced industrial and regional development. The results of the study are aimed at achieving the objectives of the state program of the Russian Federation «Development of industry and increasing its competitiveness» and the state program of the Kostroma Oblast «Economic development of the Kostroma Oblast for the period until 2025» and improving the efficiency of the state management of the structural changes in industry and regional economy.