The article is dedicated to neo-industrialization of the Russian economy based on the model of the fourth industrial revolution and human capital development. It is an important issue, since a new growth model of the Russian economy needs to be formed, reviving industrial production during the global transformation of the world system of labor division under the influence of large-scale implementation of technologies of the fourth industrial revolution. This article discusses the conceptual framework of the new industrialization, shows the influence of the industrial revolution on the labor market and employment, development of industry sectors forming the human capital. The aim of the new industrialization is the technological re-equipment of industrial production based on the latest technological developments, which is the most important condition for a successful recovery of the Russian economy from crisis and for ensuring economic and technological security of the country. The most important technological directions of the new industrial revolution that could lead to the expected revolutionary changes, are the industrial Internet, 3D-printing, or additive manufacturing, robotic production, bionic design. The article analyzes the explosive innovative growth and range expansion of the development of additive technologies at large industrial enterprises. This article discusses specific steps of neo-industrialization of the Russian economy within the framework of the "National technology initiative" programme. The development of self-employment, human capital and the innovation infrastructure (technoparks, innovative city) are also discussed. We see the directions of further studies in the development of the strategy of new industrialization of the Russian economy. As part of further research, it is also planned to develop a complex of measures of governmental support of the industry, oriented at technical modernization of production for the purpose of proactive import substitution.