The article is devoted to the consideration of two conceptual approaches to assessing the state and prospects for the development of economic entities of the real sector of the economy using the example of the so-called "golden rule" of the economy and a balanced system of indicators connected with the relational model of database and data bank management. The object of the study is economic entities, such as traditional or digital enterprises, innovative and industrial clusters, digital clusters, cyber-physical and cyber-social ecosystems, cyber-social ecosystems of cluster type. The article is relevant because the methodology for studying the actual state of the enterprise not only helps assess the production and human potential of the economic entity in the dynamics of the analyzed period, but also provides significant assistance in long- and short-term planning of the enterprise development. It can also assist with individual development strategy in specific market and product spaces in the areas of targeted investment, innovative improvement, development of a marketing policy for product quality, sales and pricing, corporate culture, increasing market activity, strengthening business reputation and competitive positions. The studied problem was formulated and a review of literary sources was carried out regarding descriptions of the specific features of the methods of analysis of economic activity used. The objective of study is to investigate the measuring capabilities of advanced tools for analyzing the market activity of economic actors. The purpose of the study is to test the effectiveness of the methodology of approaches, the effectiveness of the tools used on the examples of enterprises of the real sector of the economy and the verification of the results of financial and economic analysis. This is done to solve the problems of designing a strategy for the development of an economic entity and taking reasonable management measures. As a tool, the index method of statistical research was used when fulfilling both the golden rule and a balanced system of typical technical and economic indicators. Calculations are summarized in tables, illustrated by graphic constructions. The results of the analysis were discussed and commented on taking into account the specific characteristics of the industry activity of the selected economic entities. The directions of further research are outlined. Conclusions were drawn regarding the similarity and difference of the considered methodologies and the prospects for their use in solving applied analysis problems were assessed.