The article is devoted to the potential negative consequences arising from the import substitution of equipment, materials and technologies during the implementation of projects for the creation of high-speed railways in the Russian Federation. The article analyzes the object and subject of the study, discusses the main methods and approaches to the study of this problem, and also provides the results of foreign and domestic research. The relevance of this topic is due to the need to provide effective use of state resources in the import substitution of equipment and technologies in the implementation of projects to create high-speed highways and maximize their payback. Today, the design and construction of high-speed railways is a significant technological innovation in the field of passenger land transportation, which plays an important role in the economic, scientific and technical development of the country. In the conditions of the current geopolitical situation and sanctions against the Russian Federation, the political and economic courses of the country have changed, so one of the guidelines of the state is import substitution. This vector of development of the domestic market will allow engineering companies to minimize the consequences of restrictions on the supply of high-tech equipment and materials, which play an important role in the construction of high-speed railways. However, in the context of import substitution and limited access to technologies and equipment that are involved in the design and implementation of high-speed railway projects, engineering companies also need to optimize the selection and procurement of equipment and materials. As a result of the conducted research, the author proposed the idea of creating a nomenclature base of high-tech equipment and materials, which will act as a single resource of structured, consolidated and formalized information about product samples for the design and construction of high-speed railways. The results of this study can be useful for decision-making when planning and implementing projects to create high-speed rail lines in Russia and abroad.