Relevance. Regional differentiation refers to differences or diversity among different regions within a single country or territory. This may include differences in economic development, infrastructure, living standards, and other factors. The relevance of the research into regional differentiation is connected with the need for the state to build a single economic, social and cultural space within the country. The assessment of interregional differentiation is an important aspect for understanding the socio-economic development of a country or region, developing regional strategies and implementing state regulation measures. The purpose of the research is to study the dynamics of economic indicators (GDP per capita, investment, income, standard of living, etc.) in various subjects of the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China in terms of their initial homogeneity, convergence or divergence. The object of this study is economic indicators characterizing economic and social processes in the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China in the context of regions (provinces). The subject of the study is an approach to the study of regional inequality in the dynamics of the main economic indicators and the level of their convergence. The hypothesis of the study is the assumption that the successful development of the state as an economic system ensures a gradual convergence of the main indicators of socio-economic development of the regions. Research methods. General scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, as well as special methods of economic and statistical research (summary, grouping, correlation and regression analysis) were used. Results. The article considers the uneven distribution of benefits in the territorial, regional context. It is shown that striking economic inequality poses a threat to the territorial integrity of the country. Using the example of the provinces of the People's Republic of China, we analyzed the main economic indicators (the level of GDP per capita, indicators of investment, income, standard of living, etc.) in various territories of the country in terms of their initial homogeneity and convergence (or divergence) and compared them with the Russian Federation. A set of coefficients was used as methodological tools: the Gini coefficient; the Theil index; β-convergence and coefficient of variation. Conclusions. We proved that the successful development of the state as an economic system provides a gradual convergence of the main indicators of socio-economic development of the regions. Directions for further research: the formation of measures of state influence aimed at reducing regional differentiation, not from the point of view of reducing regional inequality in the development of productive forces, the material base of production, but from the point of view of the inadmissibility of sharp regional differences in the social living conditions of the population.