Trajectories of export strategies in Russian transport engineering enterprises
In modern economics literature, a whole range of approaches to the classification of enterprise strategies is considered at the theoretical level. However, as an independent form of strategy, the export strategy is not considered or is not given enough attention. The purpose of the article is to identify the trajectories of export strategies of enterprises in the transport engineering industry, namely civil aircraft manufacturing, enterprises producing cars, trucks, and special equipment based on statistics from the Federal Customs Service, annual reports of enterprises, and ratings of Russian analytical agencies. The study’s objectives are, firstly, to develop a methodology for assessing the export of an industry in the “sub-industry-traded country” coordinate system and a methodology for assessing the export strategy of an enterprise in the “industry-traded country” coordinate system; secondly, the analysis of the export strategy of the transport engineering industry and its enterprises, as a result of their commodity-market, resource-market, technological, integration and financial-investment strategies; thirdly, an assessment of aircraft manufacturing exports and export strategies of Russian aviation corporations on the example of subheadings “880240”, “880211”, “880212”; assessment of exports of the automotive industry and export strategies of corporations producing passenger cars using the example of subheadings “870321”, “870322”, “870323”; assessment of automotive exports and export strategies of corporations producing trucks and special equipment on the example of subheadings “870410”, “870421”, “870422”, “870423”, “870431”, “870432”, “870490”, “870510”, “870520”, “870530”, “870540”, “870590”. As a result of the study, the features of the export strategies of the transport engineering industries and the export strategies of their enterprises, such as the United Aircraft Corporation, Kamaz, GAZ Group, Avtovaz, were revealed. Their trajectories are shown in the coordinate system “commodity item – country”. It was revealed that the commodity-market component of the export strategy of aircraft manufacturing and helicopter manufacturing enterprises is to expand their presence in the world market with a diversified product range and a full range of aircraft maintenance services. The commodity-market and resource-market components of the export strategy of enterprises producing trucks and cars consist in selling not only the finished product but its entire life cycle, which requires not only the development, testing, and certification of export models but also the creation of a sales system, service maintenance, the formation of stocks of spare parts in the countries of the world economy, and in countries with a high degree of protectionism: the creation of local industries.