The role of quantitative assessment of competitiveness of enterprises becomes particularly important in transition to a digital economy. With the evolving economic processes, as our country is becoming involved in global economic relations, accompanied by sharp acceleration of scientific and technological progress, the competitiveness of an enterprise is recognized as a multidimensional concept and requires measurement. In this regard, the purpose of the study was to improve the methodological approach to assessing the competitiveness of enterprises in the digital economy. To achieve this goal, the competitiveness phenomenon was studied, and a comparative analysis of approaches was performed. One of the methodological approaches chosen during the comparison was tested, and a critical understanding of the possibility of obtaining adequate results, taking into account the realities of modern digital economy, was presented in the empirical part of the study. Based on the data obtained, we have formulated and tested the hypothesis that such factors as innovation activity and the level of use of information and communication technologies in production and sales activities should be included for more accurate assessment of the competitiveness of an enterprise. A test calculation of competitiveness indicators was carried out according to the basic and adjusted methodological approaches for an industrial and commercial enterprise. It was concluded that future assessments of competitiveness of enterprises require additional factors that should be included in integral indicators, and more accurate and multidimensional assessment of the competitive position of the enterprise in the market contributes to development and adoption of timely and competent management decisions. These factors entail innovation and the potential of R&D, which are the key components contributing to development of leading sectors of economy. In order to successfully compete, an enterprise needs to improve business processes with a focus on introducing best practices of market leaders into its activities, try to maximally take into account the wishes of customers, pursue a competent assortment and pricing policy, maximize the territorial resources of the location, maintain a positive image of the enterprise and actively use the opportunities of Internet and information technology available today.