The article analyzes the compliance of the current energy structure of China with the existing requirements of the socio-economic system and the principles of sustainable economy. The problems of the Chinese energy sector, which are increasingly dependent on imported fuels, have been identified. This fact predetermines the need to optimize China’s energy balance and energy transform to meet the demand of modern society and the rapid growth of economic demands. It is substantiated that China needs to focus on energy efficiency, energy saving, renewable energy sources and transition to the main source of energy, i.e., natural gas, during formation of China’s energy balance. Simulation for prediction of prospective energy balances is proposed; using it should allow to form the Chinese industrial structure of the electricity sector of industry in accordance with its production process, production volumes and resource consumption.