Development of digital economy has triggered active transformations in all spheres of production, which in turn promotes transition to higher levels of technology. Industry 4.0 influences the development of all spheres of human life. Digital technologies should be regarded as a separate factor of economic production, significantly affecting the accelerated rates of economic growth, increase in labor productivity. Using new scientific and technical achievements based on digital technologies in production allows to improve the quality of the products, works and services. Development of digital industry allows to improve the performance efficiency of quality management systems in enterprises, to lower transactional costs of interactions with public authorities, to improve information exchange with buyers, to optimize logistics systems both in the enterprise and with external partners. Development of digital technologies is actually based on intellectual capital which governs the need for its assessment and protection of property rights. Further, we have investigated the given combination of factors to find a regression dependence with an indicator of volume of innovative goods, works, or services. The data of some industrial enterprises of the Tambov region acted as an object of study. Increased role of the intellectual capital in the development of digital economy leads to an increase in the share of intangible assets in the added value of products. Thus, modern conditions of transformation of economic relations increase the importance of intellectual capital, which in turn promotes changes in the biosocial nature of humans.