We have established that the impact of technological progress on the efficiency of economic resources such as material, labor and physical capital (fixed assets) in manufacturing enterprises may reflect the coefficient of technological level of production. Based on the developed matrix of possible directions of technological development of enterprises and the graphic model of the life cycle of technological development, we have formulated the foundations of a new direction of economic analysis: investment and innovation analysis. We have found the advantages of the coefficient of technological level of production and identified the main factors affecting the change in its values (inflation, type of activity of the enterprise, depreciation of fixed assets, structure of fixed assets of the enterprise (the ratio of active and passive parts), rate of renewal of fixed assets, level of enterprise management). A characteristic has been presented for each of the six factors. We have shown that the impact of technological progress on the efficiency of enterprises is caused by not only objective but also subjective factors. The procedure of retrospective investment and innovation analysis has been considered. We have presented a method for determining the period of completion for each of the six stages of the life cycle of technological development. Each stage has been considered in detail from the standpoint of changes in the values of material yield, capital productivity and coefficient of technological level of production. The expediency of technological innovation has been formulated for each stage. We have also formulated the requirements to assessing economic efficiency of the implemented investment projects introducing new equipment and production technology. We have determined that instability of any stage of technological development is influenced by a subjective factor that is the low efficiency of management of technological processes and enterprise as a whole. We have shown that assessment of economic damage in the form of increase in the cost of production and decrease in the profit of the enterprise due to inefficient management can be carried out at any level. We have formulated the fundamentals of the procedure of predictive investment and innovation analysis using the developed simulation dynamic model, where the values of the share of value added in the value of sales can be used as the target parameters. We have confirmed that management of technological development of enterprises can be digitalized.