The priority national goals, which have to be achieved to reach breakthroughs in science and technology and socioeconomic development, increase the country’s population, improve the living standards and conditions of our citizens, and create an environment and opportunities for all to fulfil their potential have been established by the Order of the President of the Russian Federation. Thus, to reach the priority national goals, it is necessary to provide for simultaneous and harmonized achievements of objectives dealing with acceleration of economic growth and technological renovation, as well as those falling into the category of enhancing resource and energy efficiency and minimizing negative impacts on the environment and public health caused by the industry. Best Available Techniques (BAT) are the new instrument of the environmental industrial policy of the Russian Federation. BAT have to be considered both from the standpoint of environmental regulation and from the standpoint of the economic regulation. The objective of harmonizing approaches of the industrial and environmental policies is determined by the fact that since industry requires substantial technological renovation, introduction of environmental policies has to become the key driver and the integral element of the industrial development. The normative requirements to implementing BAT should be formed to ensure that new investments are attracted to industry and the demand for the Russian technological, environmental and analytical equipment is gradually formed and strengthened. Under the conditions of the significant deficit of investments aimed at industrial development, it is necessary to guarantee additional tools of financial support instruments for implementing Best Available Techniques as well as for developing the Russian equipment needed to comply with BAT requirements. Special indicators have to be worked out in the near future to assess the results of BAT implementation. These indicators are needed to run comparative studies of technological, environmental, economic and social characteristics of particular installations, sectors, and regions. It is also necessary to develop a scientific rationale for assessing investments and operational costs at the sectoral and regional levels. In addition, an interdepartmental system for evaluating BAT implementation has to be established and a community of chartered experts in the field of Best Available Techniques has to be formed. Econometric models and other instruments to forecast the technological level of industrial sectors and socio-economic aspects of regional development need to be worked out.