A pyramid scheme is a scheme of business which is a redistribution of the money of the parties standing at the foot of the pyramid to those at the top. The phenomenon of financial pyramids leaves a negative imprint on the political, socio-economic and investment profile of a country that is not taking sufficient measures to prevent their causes. The statutory ban on the activities of financial pyramids and criminal prosecution of their creators cannot be regarded as absolute guarantees of protecting the population against the unlawful actions of the organizers of the pyramids. A much greater role is played by financial literacy of the general population and the availability of easy tools for early identification of potential financial pyramid schemes. Not only ordinary citizens who are not proficient in finance, but also the authorities responsible for licensing and supervising financial activities are in need of such tools. The purpose of this article is to attempt to offer a set of graphical and mathematical parameters for identifying the typical signs of financial pyramids based on the tools of fractal geometry. To achieve the objectives of the study, we have solved the following tasks: identified the most typical conditions in which financial pyramids emerge; described the schemes of financial pyramids according to their types; proposed a method of graphical mathematical description of the construction of financial pyramids similar to constructing a fractal tree. We propose to regard pyramid schemes as fractal objects. This allows to describe them in a rather complete way, mimicking these real objects and creating duplicates using very simple mathematical formulas. The mathematical apparatus describing the proportions of the Sierpinski triangle can be used, in our opinion, to identify potential financial pyramids with the same ratio between the amount of income and amount of investment We see the development of an algorithm (program) of the actions of private individuals taken to identify a potential financial pyramid on the basis of a set of indicators that are simple to understand and use as the main directions for further research.