The retrospective analysis of the basic stages of formation and development of the chemical industry of the Crimea has been performed. It is noted that the chemical industry in the Crimean region ranks the third in the gross regional product. The role of industrialization of the Crimean region on the eve of World War II has been highlighted. It is noted that the rapid development of chemical industry of the Crimea in the Soviet Union is a result of the policy of industrialization and chemization of the economy with a focus on using natural raw materials. Attention is paid to the unique raw material resources of the Crimean salt lakes: Sakskoye Lake and Sivash. We have analyzed the production dynamics of the Crimean chemical industry for the periods of 1916–1932 and 1940–2000. The development of the chemical industry plays an important role in the implementation of the import substitution policy, but there are some problems in integrating the Crimean chemical industry into the Russian economy. These are the lack of industrial water and the complexity of product transportation. It was concluded that Crimean chemical plants need to integrated into Russian industrial corporate groups to develop distribution networks in the domestic market and the markets of Central Asia and Africa where there is demand for Crimean chemical products.