Russian industrial enterprises operate in the conditions of the high competition burdened by adverse geopolitical and internal economic factors. For this reason, it is particularly important for an enterprise to acquire opportunities of improving its performance through identifying, assessing and using the available reserves. It should be noted that, even though this problem is undoubtedly relevant, the analysis of references has shown there is no uniform point of view on the nature, structure and elements of the mechanism for identifying, assessing and using reserves, and also on the methods for assessing its influence on the efficiency of the activity of the industrial enterprises. The article analyzes the dependence of the enterprise’s performance on the existence and operation of the mechanism for identifying, assessing and using reserves; the efficiency evaluation stages are offered, the resource, technological and process aspects of the influences of the mechanism on the performance of the industrial enterprise are considered. Key signs and parameters of the performance assessment process as a result of the influence of the mechanism for identifying, assessing and using reserves are specified. The dependence of the performance on the incremental nature of the operation of the mechanism for identifying, assessing and using reserves is considered. A structural and logical model for evaluating the effect of the processes of identifying, assessing and using the reserves of the enterprise on the efficiency of Russian industrial enterprises. Criteria and the principles for creating the structural and logical model consisting of four interconnected blocks (target, substantial, operational and control productive) are introduced and substantiated. Conclusions are drawn and further research directions are defined on the basis of the obtained materials and their novelty.