Transformation of industrial policy in the conditions of modernization require a new paradigm and the substantiation for the imperatives of its development. The analysis of the current paradigm of industrial policy revealed a lag in the development of the industrial policy, as well as an asymmetry between the needs of the industry and the strategic potential. The formation and development of the neo-industrialization paradigm due to the necessity of an effective mechanism for managing the development processes of the Russian industry by finding adequate resources to meet the modern requirements on the basis of vertical integration. The main purpose of industrial policy in the conditions of neo-industrialization is the growth of socio-economic development; organization of expanded reproduction, the production of competitive domestic products; increase of the share of Russian products on the world market. Achieving this goal will allow Russia to overcome the economic lag from the leading countries of the world that attained the neo-industrial level. The priority tasks of neo-industrialization of the Russian economy are the rise and development of Russian industry and science, as well as the improvement of legislation, executive infrastructure, resource provision and the formation of an active unifying position of the civil society to achieve this goal. The process of the formation of innovative economy and the development of the industry revealed the areas of the formation of the industrial policy of Russia which was characteristic of the industrial nature of the development. Neo-industrialization of the Russian economy suggests selective regulation of the economy with the indispensable active participation of the civil society, in accordance with sound industrial state policy. Based on the paradigm of neo-industrialization, the author formulated the main imperatives of the postindustrial transformation of the Russian industry.