Energy conservation is one of the most important strategic initiatives of the «Energy Strategy of Russia until 2030», approved by the order of the Russian Federation government No. 1715-r of November 13, 2009, as without its large-scale implementation the development of the Russian economy will be limited to energy and environmental factors. Therefore, it is necessary to use the international experience of energy efficient technologies, such as heat pump installations in the heat supply systems of residential buildings and the development of integrated energy-saving measures, to create and secure stable, highly efficient, uninterruptible power supply in Russia. The article, written by V. Linhartova, E. Sokolova and V. Sergeev, is devoted to the presented problem. It considers the existing district heating system in the Czech Republic and the Russian Federation, exemplified by two major cities – St. Petersburg and Prague. The authors identified similar and different features in climate, geography, political and economic situation, analyzed the economic feasibility and technological possibilities of transferring the residential complex, both existing and new, to their own power supply. In addition, the authors calculated the economic benefit from the use of low-grade heat in the heating system (heating, ventilation and hot water supply) of the residential complex through the use of geothermal heat pump systems. The article results into the conclusion that its is inappropriate to use low-grade heat recovery systems due to lower prices of the fuel source, and consequently the price of the consumed heat load. However, the authors, referring to the inevitable exhaustion of natural resources, are confident about the prospects of their research and are ready to continue investigations in this area.