Modern development of the national economy is characterized by the presence of a wide variety of threats to its stable functioning. In these circumstances, there is growing significance of national security of the state, in particular, economic security as its most important component. Economic security of the state as a whole is achieved by countering the threats at the regional level. Well developed subjects of the Federation have capabilities to ensure national security. Therefore, there is need for timely monitoring of economic security indicators and identification of possible threats at the initial stages of their inception to address them in a more effective way. The Russian Federation consists of regions that are unevenly developed, whose economic potential and capabilities of ensuring economic security vary. However, through compliance with socio-economic development indicators of the uniform federal standards uniformity of the territories development, which contributes to national security of the state as a whole. Achievement of economic security at the regional level contributes to well-being of the population in each of the regions. Socio-economic development of the region is important in ensuring economic security at the regional level.. So there is need to analyze economic and social processes occurring in a particular region that have a paramount influence on the ability of the regional system for sustainable and stable development, and therefore on the economic potential and the economic security of the subject of the Federation.