The paper presents analysis of various views on the economic essence of enterprise competitiveness. Basic approaches to establishing the economic essence of enterprise competitiveness are classified. Within the defined approaches to the economic essence of enterprise competitiveness the authors offer a new integration-centred approach. They developed a marketing adaptation model for the effective performance of an economic entity (manufacturing enterprise) by activating a human-centred resource factor. The authors come up with their own interpretation of enterprise competitiveness in the changing market environment. The paper considers factors, which define competitiveness of enterprises, and formulates the concept of methodological approach to estimating the competitiveness of enterprise.