The national economy of Russia, in the period of digital transformation of all spheres of human activity (socio-economic relations, the institutional structure of society) and the transition to digital platforms connected by the global Internet network, has acquired risks characteristic of globalization. The raw materials orientation of the last 25 years with an active but careless work on embedding technological and logistics chains of domestic industrial enterprises in the chains of various countries of the world (European countries, the USA, China, South Korea, etc.) to meet the domestic needs for goods and services resulted in a loss of key competencies in industries. In 2022, political and economic events (sanctions lists) related to the struggle for world commodity markets among the developed countries inevitably led to a food blockade and withdrawal of many foreign companies from the Russian market. In the context of import substitution, there is a need for a scientifically based analysis of the current situation and decision-making on reducing the dependence of Russian industry on foreign technologies, goods and services. The article is devoted to identifying changes in the processes of digitalization of domestic industrial enterprises due to changing political and economic conditions. The effectiveness of design and technological preparation of production at machine-building enterprises and the presence of an innovative component in real conditions and the possible transition to domestic software products of CAD/CAM/CAE systems are under study. The issues related to the digitalization of technological chains of machine-building enterprises, the introduction of PLM and PDM systems and manufactured products (product life cycle and the creation of digital twins) are considered. The most vulnerable areas of the real sector of the economy related to the work of machine-building enterprises are also identified and require early decision-making. Indicators for determining the level of digitalization of mechanical engineering enterprises are presented. An economic and mathematical model (NPV) is proposed to assess the impact of investment projects for the digitalization of machine-building enterprises with an analysis of sensitivity to changes in the volume of investments of digitalization projects. The article discusses the economic conditions applicable to industrial enterprises that produce products for various purposes: civil, special and dual.