In today’s rapidly changing world, Russian companies inevitably face the choice of a development trajectory. The rupture of economic relations with the West, changing national priorities, economic instability requires Russian companies to develop new strategies and refine them taking into account the changed economic conditions. In the current conditions, flexibility in decision-making, development and implementation of strategies is more important than ever. The issue of choosing a variant of strategic development and positioning seems to be important. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of various types of Russian companies’ strategies based on the identification and comparison of officially declared strategies and those actually implemented in practice. Based on the analysis of public information about the strategies announced by the largest Russian companies, their typology was carried out. This typology formed the basis for a survey of company employees to identify the type of strategy implemented by the company. It was found that the declared and implemented strategies of companies do not always coincide. In 16 out of 39 companies, these strategies differ. In addition, the hypothesis was tested about the greater or lesser efficiency of companies with different types of strategies and about the impact of compliance with the declared and implemented strategy on the results of companies’ activities. The analysis is based on the typology of strategies developed by the authors, depending on the nature of planning, reflection of business processes, as well as the type of external environment. The analysis allowed us to conclude that companies with an ideological type of strategy (both declared and real) are relatively more effective. Moreover, companies with such an implemented strategy as “formation” demonstrated higher efficiency. The results obtained made it possible to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of various types of strategies, as well as how companies follow the stated strategy in their activities and how this is reflected in their performance indicators.