Choice of technological development transfer mechanism for light industry
The modern rapid development of the economy and industrial production is not complete without the acceleration of scientific and technological progress in certain sectors. Purpose of the study: determination of the optimal mechanism for the transfer of technical and technological innovations within the framework of intersectoral interaction with the aim of technological developments in the light industry. The authors consider the choice of a model for their use: open (based on patenting and licensing) and closed (based on the mechanism of using trade secrets). Both the open model mechanism, which is widely used, and the closed development transfer mechanism have their advantages and disadvantages. The paper describes characteristics of the environment and development conditions, which allow the enterprises to choose one or another method of interaction between light industry enterprises and scientific organizations in technological development projects. These characteristics include: the size of the potential market for the implementation of the development; the number of potential enterprises-users and their solvency; the level of legal protection of the intellectual property object in the market under consideration; the complexity of copying and reverse engineering; legal restrictions on the placement of information. The final choice of the interaction mechanism is carried out with the obligatory consideration of the difference between the development cost and the cost of its creation, as well as the reduced value of the risk of possible unauthorized use. The authors determined the upper and lower boundaries of the price corridor and the cost of transferring scientific and technological developments within the framework of intersectoral processes between organizations. To do so, it is proposed to use the condition of a positive economic effect for a scientific organization during their transfer for implementation and use in the production process and the return on investment in an intangible asset for the buyer (on based on the calculation of net present value), respectively. An example of calculating the upper and lower range of the technology transfer price for the cottonin yarn market is given. Based on the study, the authors developed an algorithm for choosing a model for the commercialization of technical and technological developments in the light industry. The algorithm includes an analysis of market factors affecting the choice of a technology implementation mechanism, the choice of the development transfer mechanism itself, and the economic justification of the terms of the agreement described in detail in this publication.