Digital traceability: concept and directions of development
The relevance of the study is due to the influence of world integration processes on national economies. Significant positive effects are associated with the simplification of the rules for doing business (removal of customs, legal and other restrictions), an increase in the capacity and size of sales markets, the spread of advanced technologies, and increased competition. Despite the significant advantages of integration, states inevitably face serious challenges. One of these challenges is counterfeit products, legalized or participating in the shadow trade. The lack of a customs border between the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union enables unhindered movement of counterfeit products, which leads to a drop in tax revenues to the national budget, a narrowing of legal markets, a decrease in the level of competition and product quality. Digital traceability of goods in transit is one of the most effective ways to solve the problem of counterfeit products. The purpose of this study is to substantiate the feasibility of forming a digital traceability infrastructure at the state and interstate levels in the context of forming a single information space. To achieve this goal, the article analyzes the concepts of “traceability” and “traceability system” as key elements of digitalization of flows in supply chains. The analysis is carried out on the basis of international (ISO 8402), interstate and state (Decree of the President of the Republic of Belarus dated December 29, 2020 No. 496, “On the traceability of goods”, STB ISO 9000, STB 2197, STB ISO 22000, STB ISO 22005, GOST R 58636, GOST R 57881, GOST R ISO 22005) regulatory legal acts. The authors indicated the goals of implementing digital traceability, which include combating counterfeit products, and providing up-to-date information to traceability partners and end users. The paper considers the regulatory documents governing digital traceability and digital marking systems on the territory of the Eurasian Economic Union and the Republic of Belarus. The results also present the effects of the introduction of digital traceability and digital marking systems at the state, business and consumer levels.