The tasks of accelerating industrial development are the most discussed issues in modern history. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that these issues have become so significant in recent decades due to the growth of high-tech knowledge-based industries, so that new answers to old questions are required in order to protect and promote these advanced areas. The logic of the presented research is determined by the question: how and from which side to approach the solution of Russian high-tech industries lagging from global trends? To find the answer, we started by identifying areas of research, those points which with efforts put in them can lead to effective results. We analyzed the classifications of high-tech industries and indicators of their development. Next, we highlighted the concept of “growth driver” and substantiated its difference from similar concepts. Based on a bibliographic search, we expanded and justified the list of high-tech growth drivers, describe their specifics for Russian economy. Using the example of two leading high-tech industries in Russia (pharmaceuticals and electronics) we revealed contemporary global trends in the development of industries, which include deepening specialization, on the one hand, and reducing the number of players in the market, on the other. Relative to the current state of pharmaceutical and electronic production, a role in the world division of labor and the prospect of its improvement in the near future, as well as the role of the state in this process are shown. Then we suggested a generalized list of stimulating measures (or growth drivers) for the development of high-tech industries in Russia and other countries. As a result, we concluded that state stimulation of high-tech industries development has a short-term, situational and limited effect with no integration into global technological trends. This integration does not imply domination in the high-tech market, but is more like a small success resulting from large investments.