As one of the particular features of digitalization, big data technologies are considered. They are expected to be an integral part of the emerging digital society. The main characteristics of this phenomenon are presented, various approaches to the legal regulation of big data turnover in different countries are discussed. It is noted that up to date, the term «big data» has not received an unambiguous legal definition in any of the world jurisdictions yet. A gradual shift in the definition of big data from quantitative to qualitative characteristics is shown; Moreover, in the legal field, understanding of big data as a process rather than an object often prevails. The importance of big data technologies for the economic development of society is described; the main characteristics of big data technologies are given. It is indicated that the changes caused by innovative technologies are institutionally dependent. It is shown that a mandatory requirement for the development of new technologies should be the consideration of their social consequences, which is equivalent to the formation of a scientific culture of digital infrastructure implementation. Three approaches to the formation of digital reality by the state are formulated (prohibitions and restrictions, standardization and development of infrastructure, both physical and digital). A number of risks and challenges associated with the introduction of new technologies are discussed. Consideration of big data technology through the prism of national security is proposed. Based on the experience of handling big data in the scientific field, a number of actions have been formulated to reduce the threats associated with the introduction of new digital technologies. The idea is emphasized that state policy in the field of digital technologies should be based on the logic of regulation of those entities over which physical control is possible. In particular, the idea of the impossibility and unnecessary total control of the turnover of big data and the futility of prohibitions are upheld. It is proposed to focus on the development of appropriate infrastructure in the Russian Federation, including the localization of data processing centers in the Russian Federation in order to ensure national security interests.