The article highlights current development features of Central Asian economies. The connection between the development of a regional economy and its transport and logistics system is shown. The level of transport and logistics systems development in a country of the Central Asian region is characterized. The study describes the factors determining the modern state of the transport and logistics system in countries of Central Asia as well as the influence of transport infrastructure development on the condition of the transport and logistics system in the countries of Central Asia. In particular, the article focuses on the conditions and factors that hamper the development of the transport and logistics system in the countries of Central Asia. The basic tendencies and the state of transport and logistics system elements in the region are defined. The problems typical for the transport and logistics system in the countries of Central Asia and the prospects for its development are determined. The article clarifies the features of infrastructure, especially transport and logistics for international cooperation and integration. To characterize the level of development of transport and logistics systems in Central Asia, the logistics quality index is used. We have concluded that the countries of Central Asia have perhaps the lowest quality index of logistics, despite the fact that they are attractive for their natural resources, capacious markets for consumer and industrial goods, as well as a convenient transit position. Based on the study of commodity structure of foreign trade, we have discussed the role and importance of individual kinds of transport in international traffic through the territory of Central Asia and the characteristics of the logistics system. The leading role of railway transport, including in the field of transit transport in Central Asia, has been determined. We have substantiated the idea that the main problems of the existing transport infrastructure of the region are its high wear and low capacity. Based on analysis, the main characteristics of the roads of Central Asia are presented. Considering the logistics system in the countries of Central Asia in more detail, we note that its main drawback is organizational and technological imperfection of the transportation process. The study gives parametric characteristics of transport infrastructure in Central Asian countries.