The costs of repair and maintenance of technological equipment affect the cost of production of metallurgical enterprises. These costs, depending on the size of the enterprise and the nature of the industry, can add up to 40 %. Of course, the high costs of maintenance and repair adversely affect the economic activity of the enterprise and therefore the issues of reducing maintenance costs and improving the reliability of technological equipment are the key priority tasks of any enterprise. The modern level of technological development of industrial enterprises places high demands on the reliability of the equipment, as well as efficient and economical operation of technological equipment at minimum cost of time and money. The situation with the system of maintenance and repair in various industries is ambiguous. Two key factors come to the forefront in connection with optimization of technological processes and restructuring of all sectors of industry and internal divisions of enterprises: the technological equipment used and system for maintenance and repair of existing equipment. Due to financial difficulties, it is not possible to update the technological equipment used, so the maintenance and repair system becomes first priority in all industries. This problem has a direct impact on efficient operation of enterprises. The material proposed in the article is the result of studies in the field of management of repair and maintenance of basic metallurgical equipment. We have analyzed a number of factors from the technical and technological standpoints, arising in generation of costs for repairs and maintenance at the modern metallurgical enterprise, which in practice lead to insurmountable barriers in analysis of validity and transparency of the repair program, as well as negative impact on indicators of economic activity of the enterprise. As an example, the study compared individual elements of the system of maintenance and repairs developed in the USSR.