Economic assessment of technology for waste processing taking into account impact on environment
The issues connected to designing and applying new technologies for processing household and industrial wastes are drastically important for Russia; a public company has been created with the purpose of dealing with these issues, acting as a unified state operator for forming an integrated system for processing municipal solid waste (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 8 of January 14, 2019). The purposes of this system are preventing dangerous impact of waste on the quality of human life and environment, analysis of opportunities for use of waste in industry as raw materials or products and for transforming waste into secondary resources for fabricating new production and obtaining energy, and also for the purposes of saving resources. According to Rostec State Corporation, the total mass of waste generated in Russia is 3–4 billion tons per year, of which 54% is waste from extraction of fuel and energy resources, 17% waste from non-ferrous metallurgy, 16% waste from ferrous metallurgy, 12% waste from other industries, including municipal solid waste (MSW). Landfills for waste disposal occupy fertile or forest lands, pollute the atmosphere, surface layers of soil, lakes, rivers and groundwater adversely affect the animal and plant world, worsen the quality of life of the population in adjacent areas, and uncontrollably spread toxic waste. Therefore, the issues of environmental safety and analysis of applied technologies for recycling are undoubtedly an urgent task. The impact of some enterprises on the environment is assessed through existing systems for maintaining an optimal environmental status. We have offered a detailed and complex technique for assessing the environmental hazard of waste from recycling facilities using a hierarchical group of indicators. To improve the adequacy of assessing the environmental impact of the technological process of waste recycling, we have proposed to consider six components and three multiplying factors.