The advancement of the innovation sector as a key driver for the development of the industrial sphere, which is the foundation of the economy, has become a worldwide trend. In its turn, the form of economic development based on innovative processes is permanently undergoing changes in connection with the introduction of advanced information and communication technologies developing in the direction of global digitalization. The digital development strategy, which is a fundamentally new platform for the implementation of digital solutions in the field of information and communication technologies, is one of the main priorities from the point of view of ensuring the competitiveness of the economy in general and the industrial sector in particular, as well as raising the population’s standard of living, which determines the relevance of the topic of the article. The purpose of the study is to identify the specific features of the transforming Russian economy and of the industrial sector in particular, as well as to develop the principles of the digital economy in terms of identifying additional sources of efficiency of business systems, taking into account the development of infocommunication technologies in the direction of digitalization. Both quantitative (mainly statistical) and qualitative research methods (analogy method, methods of content and expert analysis and synthesis) are used in the study, on the basis of which the modern level of industrial development of Russia is analyzed and assessed in terms of conditions for transition to a new industrial-digital platform. At the same time, this transition is connected with the technological modernization of the manufacturing industry, which involves integrated development of fixed assets and technologies, the renewal of domestic research and development, based on education and science. Special models of the methodology of studying innovative processes are also used in the article, such as push and pull models, as well as an interactive dual model, tested in terms of adequacy to digital technologies. The article proves the feasibility of an interactive nonlinear model based on the paradigm of open innovation and cloud business systems implemented at the expense of the current level of development of infocommunication technologies. We have identified the sources of growth of the efficiency of business systems in general and innovations in particular through the reduction of transaction costs resulting from the transfer of a significant volume of business processes to electronic form, as well as transformation costs resulting from the implementation of the paradigm of network business systems, which increases the efficiency of both material and labor resources and reduces the transformation costs in terms of their conditionally constant component. The article describes the path of further research in the direction of creating institutional conditions for the development of network-centric (cloud) systems and high-tech businesses, as well as updating (or adapting) the methods and tools for analysis and evaluation of economic efficiency.