The article refines the concept of neoindustrialization (‘new industrialization’) as a social and economic category in narrow and broad meaning on the basis of the systems approach principle. Neoindustrialization is the development of new forms of manufacturing organization based on the implantation of cyber-physical systems and the Internet of things (narrow meaning). Neoindustrialization also represents a natural process of developing all productive forces on the basis of ‘digitalization’ (automation, computerization, networking) in all sectors of the national economy, social development and environmental protection (wide meaning). The foreign experience of developing plans and programs of neoindustrialization of the national economy has been analyzed. The industrial policies in Germany (Platform Industrie 4.0), Great Britain (industrial development plan until 2050) and China (Made in China 2025, 中国 制造 2025) have been systematized. The main directions of new industrialization of the national economy have been identified on the basis of foreign experience. The main directions of neoindustrialization as an integrated basis for economic, industrial, investment, innovation and social policies are the development of the industry 4.0 based on increasing the level of production systems’ self-organization, introduction of cyber-physical systems and the Internet of things; the ‘digitalization’ of education, science and human living conditions; the transition to open innovation and open access to knowledge transfer platforms and knowledge sharing; the human health and the environmental reproduction; improving the quality of life. The national features of the neoindustrialization policy have been formulated. The study presents how the actions aimed at technological development of the national economy based on the construction of the industry 4.0 may be integrated into a set of measures related to human reproduction and improving the quality of life based on a systemic approach to implementing the policy of neo-industrialization. Possible directions for further research are indicated: studying the experience of new industrial development in other countries (the concept of ‘industrial Internet’ in the United States, the French industrial development plan ‘New Industrial France’, the concept of robotics development ‘robot revolution’ in Japan), the application of foreign experience for designing a system of measures aimed at neoindustrialization of the Russian economy.