Trends of public-private partnership evolution in Russia and in the world
In order to identify the optimal forms of cooperation between public authorities and the private sector when infrastructure projects are implemented, it is important to analyze global and domestic experience in the sphere of public-private partnership. However, today there is not any typical chronology of the emergence and evolution of these forms of partnerships. The first examples of the cooperation between public authority and private citizens exhibited only some elements of the public-private partnership. In the ancient history, cooperation had such forms as the transfer of rights to collect taxes from public authority to private citizens, renting of public lands. The era of geographical discoveries marked the period of the first European concessions, which were providing for organizing expeditions. In several other European countries, such as Great Britain and Germany, the first concession agreements were concluded in the beginning of the 19th century. The first cooperation between public authority and industrialists in Russian history occurred during the reign of Peter I, focused on the development of iron factories in the Urals. Railways, in some cities, trams, and municipal infrastructure were also constructed in the Russian Empire with the help of concessions. Today the global experience of implementing public-private partnerships shows that all levels in the government are involved in this process and in several countries special departments coordinate the projects. The last trends in the development of partnership in Russia allow to determine the most perspective industries for actual application of the public-private partnership and identify the areas of organizational and legal regulation which require further improvement.