This article is devoted to the structuring of the process of socioeconomic reforms in Vietnam being implemented since the second half of 1980s. The author emphasizes the stages of reforming of Vietnamese economy and society in general, demonstrates the main milestones on this road. Statistical data on the results of reforms on macroeconomic level are provided. The author discusses the problems, contradictions and unattained goals in the field of modernization of Vietnamese society. The attention is attracted to the comparison of the progress and results of socioeconomic reforms in Vietnam and in the Soviet Union (Russian Federation). Internal and external factors of reforms being implemented in Vietnam are discussed.